LUBRITA article about lubes and oils specifications

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Lubricant characteristics and performances are managed by standard or industrial organizations as API, ACEA, and SAE through specific norms. These technical requirements as physical properties, engine tests results and other various OEM’s criteria.


International lubricants standards:


SAE

Engine lubricants, which originally contained no additives, were first classified in 1911 on the basis of their viscosity, using the first viscosity classification of the American Society of Automobile Engineers (SAE). It has been changing ever since. The SAE grade determines oil's fluidity at high and low temperatures. Its purpose is to classify lubricating oils for engines and transmissions on the basis of their viscosity at a reference temperature. LUBRITA engine oil SAE grade of 5W-30 as example indicates viscosity index at low temperature (5) and at operating temperature (30) degrees.


ACEA

The European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association, the ACEA, has created a classification of lubricants according to their technical specifications and the requirements of each OEM engine type. Among the Association’s members are: Ford Europe, PSA Peugeot-Citroën, Daimler, BMW, Jaguar-Landrover, Renault Group, DAF Trucks, Fiat, GM Europe, MAN, Porsche, Scania, Volkswagen, Volvo and Toyota Europe.
Tests are performed in order to classify lubricants into standardized categories, primarily using European engines and under European driving conditions.
The standard is made up of a letter which represents the engine type and a number which represents its performance. The latest version of the ACEA dates from 2012 and is applicable as from December 2013.

It defines:
Four categories of common standards for gasoline (letter A) and diesel (letter B) engines.
Four categories for vehicles equipped with post-treatment systems (letter C)


API

The American Petroleum Institute, the API, is the organization representing the petroleum and natural gas industry.
It is made up of petroleum companies, gasoline additive firms, car manufacturers and testing laboratories. Its role is to create a classification according to the performance of lubricants. This classification is updated as soon as any new problems are highlighted by American car manufacturers.
The standard uses two letters. The first represents the type of application (S is for Service qualifying for gasoline engines, C for Commercial qualifying diesel engines). The second gives the performance level of a lubricant, according to the year the standard comes into effect as this chronological timeline shows.
The API considers all standards which precede SJ and CF as obsolete. The SN standard represents lubricants that give improved protection to engines. These lubricants improve general engine performance and allow extended oil change intervals. The CF standard concerns indirect injection engines. CF standard lubricants efficiently control deposits.


ILSAC

The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee or ILSAC is the organization responsible for creating lubricant specifications for passenger cars. ILSAC/OIL is the entity within ILSAC that develops and introduces the newly required specifications. The entity is divided into two branches: ILSAC, which includes the AAM (Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers) and the JAMA (Japanese Automobile Manufacturers Association)
• ILSAC, which includes the AAM (Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers) and the JAMA (Japanese Automobile Manufacturers Association)
• OIL, which is composed of representatives from organizations within the petroleum industry, the API and the ACC (American Chemistry Council)
Tests performed by ILSAC/OIL are certified by the API.
There are five ILSAC specifications:
• GF-1 and GF-2 are now obsolete.
• GF-3, introduced in 2001 (API SL level+ improved Fuel Economy +improved volatility+deposit control and viscosity performance) with a limit for phosphorous of 0.1% max.
• GF-4, introduced in 2005 (API SM level + improved Fuel Economy performance) and designed for low emission vehicles. It includes limits for phosphorus and sulfur contents in order to improve the lifespan of post-treatment systems
GF-5 was introduced in 2010. It was designed with the aim of:
• Improving fuel economies and maintaining them over time (Fuel Economy retention)
• Ensuring good protection of new engine technologies, better sludge control
• Protecting post-treatment systems
• Suiting E85 fuel driven engines
LUBRITA proposes complete product ranges – some of wich have been totally reformulated to meet the ILSAC GF-5 standards. ILSAC GF-6 is currently under development and might be launched in 2018. There will be 2 subcategories:
GF-6A: backward compatible with GF-5, but with improved fuel economy and durability.
GF-6B: similar performance as GF-6A, but allowing more fluid grades such as 0W-16.
Not backward compatible with GF-5


JASO

The Japanese Automotive Standards Organization or JASO, has established its own standards in terms of performance and quality for Japanese engines.
It classifies oils into three categories:
DH-1 and DH-2 for industrial diesel engines.
DL-1 for for Diesel passenger cars engines.
Qualification of fuel economy lubricants.


The „EURO“ standards

European Community standards specifying maximum limits for heavy duty vehicle pollution emissions have appeared since the beginning of the 1990s. These increasingly severe standards have successively been called Euro 1 (1993), Euro 2 (1996), Euro 3 (2000), Euro 4 (2006) Euro 5 (October 2009) and Euro 6 (2014). For passenger cars there are 2 Euro 6 categories: Euro 6B (2014) and Euro 6C (2017)
To constantly improve air quality the Euro standards take several factors into account when evaluating a vehicle's pollution (the level of carbon monoxide and of the different nitrogen oxides, the fine particle emissions, etc.)
The Euro standards must be directly applied by the automotive manufacturers. Thanks to its environmental policy, LUBRITA lubricants is committed to developing oils allowing OEMs to meet these standards.


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