US Engine Tests in ACEA Specifications

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According Lubricants Encyclopedia US Engine Tests in ACEA Specifications ACEA prefers European engine oil performance tests in the European Oil Sequences. But if appropriate tests are not available or if new European tests would not target new performance criteria but only mean a proliferation of tests, US tests are implemented: Example ACEA classes for service-fill oils for gasoline and Diesel engines (A1/B1, A3/B3, A3/B4, A5/B5 . . .) • Sequence VG (ASTM D6593-00) Test method to evaluate a lubricant’s ability to prevent low-temperature sludge and varnish formation, utilizing a Ford 8-cylinder, 4.6-l fuel-injected gasoline engine. The 216-h test consists of 54 cycles, each cycle with three differing operating stages. Single-source reference fuel is mandatory. Example ACEA classes for service-fill oils for heavy-duty Diesel engines (E4, E6, E7, and E9) • Mack T-8E (ASTM D 5967) Testmethod to evaluate the soot-in oil handling capability of engine crankcase lubricants with regard to viscosity, utilizing a Mack E7-350, six-cylinder in-line direct injection, fourstroke, turbocharged, and intercooled engine.


The 250- or 300-h test is operated under constant speed and load. Test criteria are oil filter plugging and relative viscosity at 4.8 % soot and 50 % shear loss. • Mack T11 Test method to evaluate the soot-in oil handling capability of engine crankcase lubricants with regard to viscosity, utilizing a Mack E-TECH V-MAC III, electronically controlled fuel injection with unit injectors, turbocharged, and intercooled EGR (¼ exhaust gas recirculation). The 252 h test requires 500 ppm sulfur fuel. Test criteria are oil filter plugging and TGA soot at 4, 12, and 15 cST (100 C). • Cummins ISM Test method to evaluate soot induced wear and deposits, utilizing a Cummins ISM engine with EGR and a VTG turbocharger (¼ variable turbine geometry). The 200-h test requires 500 ppm sulfur fuel. Test criteria are rocker pad weight loss, oil filter differential pressure at 150 h, engine sludge, and injector adjustment screw weight loss. • Mack T12 Test method to evaluate liner, piston ring, and bearing wear, utilizing a Mack E-TECH V-MAC III Diesel engine with EGR. The 300-h test consists of 100 h at 1,800 r/min and 200 h at 1,200 r/min at constant speed and load. The test is running on ultralow sulfur Diesel fuel. Test criteria are liner wear, piston top compression ring weight loss, end-of-test lead content in used oil, delta lead from 250 to 300 h, and oil consumption phase II.


Some history:
Before 1991 CCMC was the organization of the European automobile manufacturers and thus the predecessor organization of ACEA. At the end of the 1970s, the development of the American and European engines and their demands for lube oils more and more departed from each other. Thus, the American API or MIL specifications could no longer satisfy the European engines. Thus, the CCMC introduced new lube oil categories for Europe: • CCMC G1 to G5 for gasoline engines • CCMC D1 to D5 for Diesel engines • CCMC PD 1 and PD 2 for passenger car Diesel engines including the turbocharged versions The necessity for a new performance test and the minimum performance requirements were defined by the OEMs. Often, test developments were initiated and executed under extreme time pressure after field problems occurred to overcome them. The performance tests were developed by CEC, at that time consisting of members of the national organizations from lubes and additive manufacturers, universities, and independent laboratories. The development was done by a number of volunteers, all at the same time, on their own costs. ACEA ACEA was formed in 1991 and represents the interests of the 16 European car, truck, and bus manufacturers at EU level. The first European Oil Sequences were published in 1996 and it was the first time during nearly 100 years of combustion engine production that all European OEMs agreed on a common sequence without additional in-house tests. This period lasted 2 years, the standard interval for revisions. Now the ACEA specifications are only the baseline for all.

 

 

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